|Assembly||Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico|
Fremont, California, USA
|Class||Compact pickup truck (1995-2004)|
Mid-size pickup truck (2005-present)
|Body style(s)||2-door regular cab|
4-door crew cab
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive|
The Toyota Tacoma is a compact pickup truck manufactured by the Toyota Motor Company since 1995. It is essentially the Toyota Hilux modified and rebadged for North America. The second-generation Tacoma was Motor Trend Magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. Currently, it is America's best selling mid-size or compact-size pickup. The Toyota Tacoma is named after the City of Tacoma, in Washington State, USA.
First generation (1995–2004)
|Engine(s)||2.4 L I4 142 hp (106 kW)|
2.7 L I4 150 hp (112 kW)
3.4 L V6 190 hp (142 kW)
|Wheelbase||1995-2000 Regular Cab: 103.3 in (2624 mm)|
2001-04 Regular Cab: 104.3 in (2649 mm)
Xtracab: 121.9 in (3096 mm)
|Length||1995-97 Regular Cab 2WD: 174.8 in (4440 mm)|
Xtracab 2WD: 193.3 in (4910 mm)
1995-97 Regular Cab 4WD: 180.5 in (4585 mm)
1995-97 Xtracab 4WD: 199.0 in (5055 mm)
1998-2000 Regular Cab 4WD, 1998-2002 PreRunner Regular Cab 2WD: 183.8 in (4669 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 4WD & PreRunner Xtracab: 202.3 in (5138 mm)
1998-2002 Regular Cab 2WD: 184.5 in (4686 mm)
1998-2002 Xtracab 2WD: 203.1 in (5159 mm)
2003-04 Regular Cab 4WD: 184.4 in (4684 mm)
2003-04 Xtracab V6 & Double Cab: 202.9 in (5154 mm)
|Width||66.5 in (1689 mm)|
2001-02 Crew Cab: 70.1 in (1781 mm)
2003-04 Crew Cab: 70.3 in (1786 mm)
|Height||2WD: 61.0-64.1 in (1549-1628 mm)|
4WD: 66.3-67.7 in (1684-1720 mm)
|Curb weight||(3155 lbs)|
|Fuel capacity||57.2 litres (15.1 US gal; 12.6 imp gal)|
70 litres (18.5 US gal; 15.4 imp gal)
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma: the 2.4 L four cylinder rated at 142 hp (106 kW) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) of torque, the 2.7 L four cylinder rated at 150 hp (112 kW) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque, and the 3.4 L six cylinder rated at 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque. The 2.4 L gave a highly useful 29 miles per US gallon (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) (hwy), the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg-imp) (hwy), and the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp) (hwy).
Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns. The 2.4 L and 3.4 L engines were available in this vehicle depending on options. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.
Four-wheel drive Tacomas had six-stud wheel lug patterns, which had been used on the prior pickups (pre-Tacoma trucks). The truck's frame is fully boxed until immediately after the front leaf spring mount bracket where is transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F (Asian code is 30-40LE). From 95-97 Single cab Tacomas had the option of a manual transmission with the 3.4 V6 engine. From 98 on, the single cabs only got a 2.7 or a 2.4 4-cyl from factory. TRD packages started in 98 (if the V6 engine was selected, you got a differential locker in the rear).
Prerunner models started in 98. They share the same front and rear suspension parts and geometry, frame, styling and engine options as the 4x4 Tacomas of this year range. Prerunner Tacomas also had the option of the TRD Off-Road package which (like the 4x4) got a rear differential locker if it was a V6 model (among other suspension variations). One downside is there was not option of a 5-speed transmission. The V6 Tacoma automatic transmissions were an A340E. Because of the similarities in the Prerunner and 4x4 models, it is possible to use stock parts to convert a Prerunner to a 4x4. However, in the online Toyota community this not advised.
In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold very well, attracting many young buyers. The first generation Tacoma underwent a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in 1998, and the second in 2001. The facelifts mainly entailed new headlights and grilles. Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions (coil-on-plug) in 1997 and in 1998 longer rear leaf springs. All 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect (ADD) system after the 2000 model year.
The only extra feature in 2001 was a new crew cab (four door) model added to the lineup. The crew cab featured four doors, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors. The extended cab featured a 6-foot (2 m) bed while the crew cab featured a 5-foot-5-inch (1.7 m) bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds, but most competitors shared this shortcoming.
In 2001, along with the front facelift, Toyota had also unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4 liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch (410 mm) alloy wheels, and a 5 speed manual transmission with Tokico Gas shocks. There were only 200 produced each month from 2001-2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, and Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger they also led the way against fullsize trucks.
Second generation (2005–present)
|Engine(s)||2.7 L (159 hp) I4 |
4.0 L (236 hp) V6
|Wheelbase||Regular Cab 4WD & PreRunner: 110.0 in (2794 mm)|
Access Cab: 127.8 in (3246 mm)/127.2 in (3231 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 140.9 in (3579 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 109.4 in (2779 mm)
|Length||Regular Cab: 190.4 in (4836 mm)|
Access Cab: 208.1 in (5286 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 221.3 in (5621 mm)
|Width||2WD Extended: 74.6 in (1895 mm)|
2WD Regular: 72.2 in (1834 mm)
4WD: 74.7 in (1897 mm)
X-Runner: 74.0 in (1880 mm)
|Height||Extended Cab & 4WD Regular: 69.9 in (1775 mm)|
Double Cab: 70.1 in (1781 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 65.7 in (1669 mm)
2005-06 X-Runner: 65.2 in (1656 mm)
2007-Present X-Runner: 72.2 in (1834 mm)
|Curb weight||(3550 lb)|
|Fuel capacity||79.9 litres (21.1 US gal; 17.6 imp gal)|
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
Toyota FJ Cruiser
At the 2004 Chicago Auto Show, Toyota unveiled a bigger and more powerful Tacoma. This new Tacoma was available in eighteen different configurations, that included three cab configurations, four transmissions, two engines, and two bed lengths. Toyota also introduced an X-Runner trim, which replaces the slow selling S-Runner trim from the previous generation. The X-Runner features a 4.0 liter V6 with a six speed manual transmission, 18 in (457.2 mm)ch alloy wheels, and lowered two inches from the factory and included an X-Brace suspension package. The Tacoma's all new 4.0 liter V6 (1GRFE) took the place of the original 3.4 liter V6. The new 4.0 liter V6 had many enhancements, such as a new 6500 pound tow rating, and a payload capacity of 1650 pounds. The 4.0 liter produces 236 horsepower (176 kW) and 266 foot-pounds of torque. The smaller, 4 cylinder alternative to the 4.0 in less expensive models is the rated at 159 hp (119 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m). of torque. At 2.7 liters, it is much different than its predecessor 3RZ-FE, in that it has VVT-i and different build material. Toyota also included a Down-Hill Assist Control (DAC) and Hill-Side Assist Control (HAC), with models that were equipped with the optional Toyota Racing Development (TRD) packages. A locking rear differential, limited-slip differential were also some optional features. Every Tacoma was manufactured with a composite inner bed that includes a deck rail system with four tie down cleats, hook-pins, storage boxes, and a power outlet (models with TRD packages). The tie down cleats are rated to hold up to 220 lb (100 kg). The 2006 model Tacoma was a bit different from the 2005 model. The 2006 model made some options standard. Minor changes have been made to the 2007 models such as new engine which runs on regular gasoline and delivers better fuel economy than the previous models, and the seating system was updated. Toyota also added 2 new interior colors for 2007 model year. 2008 models are carry ons from 2007. The second generation Tacomas are assembled in Tijuana, Mexico and Fremont, California while the plastic/composite beds are all built in Mexico.
In Canada, the Tacoma is in the 2009 model year, it had received a new 6-disc CD player, new steering wheel controls, and a VSC system. The 2009 Tacoma will be introduced in the United States in late 2008.
Safety and structural integrity
The Tacoma comes standard with ABS and beginning with the 2009 model year, all Tacoma's feature Toyota's Star Safety System which adds electronic stability control. Front and rear row side curtain airbags and side torso airbags for the front row also become standard. The 2009 Tacoma also features standard active headrests for the front row.
Given the smaller size of pickup trucks in the Tacoma's category, crash testing for these sized trucks lags with how well most full size trucks perform. However, in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) test of the Tacoma and other small trucks, only the side airbag equipped Tacoma received the highest overall rating of 'Good' in the side impact test. The Tacoma also is rated Good in the frontal offset crash test. And in 2009 the Tacoma is given the IIHS's Top Safety Pick award.
The Toyota X-Runner is a limited production trim. The X-Runner is only available in three colors per year, and only four colors total. From 2005-2008 the X-Runner is available in Speedway Blue, Radiant Red and Black Sand Pearl. In 2009 Radiant Red was discontinued and replaced with Barcelona Red Metallic.
Key differences between the X-Runner and the other packages include tweaks to the suspension and added ground effects. Toyota added a rear mounted X-Brace to stiffen up the rear end (hence the name X-Runner). The chassis was further stiffened by adding two more support braces to the frame. An optional big brake kit by TRD is also available on the X-Runner; which consists of a 332mm slotted rotor and 4 piston caliper. The BBK (big brake kit) was designed by StopTech.
Aftermarket performance for the 1GRFE 4.0L motor has grown rapidly from Q4 of 2007 to the present. Many intakes, exhausts, and headers are available for the motor. During the summer of 2008 Allan Phillips Racing released the APR X-1 ECU Controller, a piggyback ECU designed specifically for the Toyota Tacoma 4.0L ECU (though also compatible with the FJ Cruiser). The X-1 comes with a Stage 1 kit which includes exhaust timing gears and a 170* t-stat. NST and TTC Performance have recently released new engine components for the 1GRFE motor. NST released a lightweight pulley system - crank pulley, alternator pulley, and water pump pulley (with more in development). The pulleys are OEM size but lighter in weight to reduce drivetrain loss. TTC Performance released a couple different cams configurations as well as forged pistons. Also newly available for the 4.0L motor is a Fidanza lightweight aluminum flywheel available from Paradise Racing. Paradise Racing also have the Competition Clutch Stage II and Stage IV clutch kits available.
Multiple forced induction systems are also available. URD offers a centrifugal supercharger, TRD offers a roots based supercharger, and STS (Squires Turbo Systems) has released a bolt-on, remote turbo application. PSI Racing has also built a twin turbo application running at about 13psi of boost, though no other information on it has been released.
Toyota Racing Development
Since 1996 Toyota added a new Toyota Racing Development (TRD) off road package. The package includes off road tires, 16 inch alloy wheels, TRD shocks, a locking rear differential, and the TRD graphics. In 2003 Toyota introduced a TRD sport package on the Toyota Tundra full-size pickup. This package was not available until 2005 for the Tacoma. This package includes street performance tires, 17 inch alloy wheels, shocks, race inspired hood, and TRD sport graphics. It is also about 200 dollars more expensive than the original TRD off road package.
Toyota Racing Development (TRD) today (10-30-2007) announced that a TRD supercharger for the Toyota FJ Cruiser sport utility vehicle (SUV) and Tacoma pickup truck equipped with 4.0-liter V6 engines is now available through Toyota dealerships. The TRD supercharger will increase both engines' output up to 304-horsepower from the original horsepower (236-hp for Tacoma, 239-hp for FJ Cruiser), while increasing the torque output up to 334 foot-pounds. Both horsepower and torque ratings are SAE net.
This all-new TRD supercharger is compatible on all 2005 through 2008 model year Toyota Tacoma trucks, and 2007 and 2008 model year FJ Cruiser SUV. This supercharger system features Eaton roots-type rotating components in a one-piece integral manifold, iridium spark plugs, and a five-rib serpentine drive belt system. In addition it produces six to eight pounds of boost pressure per square inch.
The supercharger, when installed by an authorized Scion or Toyota dealer, has the same warranty as powertrain, five years or 60,000 miles, or the balance of the new car warranty, whichever is greater. When not installed by an authorized dealer, the supercharger is covered by a 12-month, 12,000-mile parts-only warranty.
The manufacturer's suggested retail price of the TRD supercharger is $4,500, not including installation.
The 2RZ-FE and 3RZ-FE both have a supercharger available through TRD (Toyota Racing Development). The supercharger is manufactured by Alpine Developments. This kit is rated at an increase of 50% power at 8 psi of boost. The most commonly seen is the TRD supercharger available for the 5VZ-FE V6, which is manufactured by Magnuson Products. This particular supercharger is rated to increase power from 190 hp (140 kW) to 251 hp (187 kW).
The 2005 - 2008 4.0 litre (1GRFE) engine also has a supercharger available from URD (Underdog Racing Development). It increases the RWHP from 209 to 305. That's 236 horsepower (176 kW) to approximately 366 horsepower (273 kW). The OEM for this supercharger is Rotrex. This is the same OEM company that makes the supercharger for the 806 horsepower 4.7 litre Koenigsegg CCR which at one time held the world speed record.
American special forces use
During Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom, multiple Toyota Tacomas have been observed in use by special forces units of the U.S. Army. Typically, they have been Double Cab models, with SR5 and TRD packages.
Despite the fact that the Hilux, which the Tacoma is based on, is extremely common in the Middle East, SF found it to be easier to purchase them from American dealerships, modify them appropriately, and ship them to their areas. The Tacoma and Hilux share the same body, but the chassis is significantly different in the Tacoma and believed to be much weaker. The gasoline engine used is significantly quieter than the diesel engines used in the HMMWV. These were modified by eliminating the factory radio, along with almost all exterior lights and door buzzers. The front headlights have been modified to work in IR, in order to work with night vision. The engines are unmodified, but the vehicles have been fitted with brush guards, Warn winches, and a rollbar with a machine gun mount.
|Jun 2008||May 2008||Apr 2008||Mar 2008||Feb 2008||Jan 2008||Dec 2007||Nov 2007||Oct 2007||Sep 2007||Aug 2007||Jul 2007|
|Jun 2007||May 2007||Apr 2007||Mar 2007||Feb 2007||Jan 2007||Dec 2006||Nov 2006||Oct 2006||Sep 2006||Aug 2006||Jul 2006|
|Jun 2006||May 2006||Apr 2006||Mar 2006||Feb 2006||Jan 2006||Dec 2005||Nov 2005||Oct 2005||Sep 2005||Aug 2005||Jul 2005|
Tacoma sales in the U.S. have risen steadily in the past few years. By 2004 (calendar year) it lagged the perennial segment leader, the Ford Ranger, by just 2.2%; a year later it was leading by nearly 40% and in 2006, it had extended that lead to an impressive 93%. Toyota sells around 190,000 Tacomas annually. In 2005 Toyota Motor Corporation sold 189,987 Tacomas, better than any other compact pickup in its class. Tacoma sales make about 10 percent of Toyota Motor Corporations annual sales. From March 2006 to March 2007 Tacoma sales have steadily risen. In March 2006 Toyota sold 9,185 (4x2) Tacomas, in March 2007 Toyota sold 10,851 (4x2) Tacomas. Over the summer of 2007 Toyota broke records selling over 60,000 Tacomas in a 3 month period. Consumer reports show an increase in sales (up 7.6 percent from August 2006).
- Fuel Economy
- "Most Small Pickups 'Dismal' In Crash Test -- Toyota Rates Best Among 5 Tested". KCRA.com. 2008-07-24. http://www.kcra.com/2009-cars/16975537/detail.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-03.
- "Most Small Pickup Trucks Fail Side Impact Tests". The Auto Writer. 2008-07-24. http://thearticlewriter.com/autowriter/most-small-pickup-trucks-fail-side-impact-tests/. Retrieved on 2008-08-03.
- Toyota Tacoma official site
- Tacoma assembly plant
- Tacoma World Forums
- URD Underdog Racing Development
- Military Toyotas
- X-Runner Underground
Toyota light truck timeline, North American market, 1980s–present
|Full-size SUV||Land Cruiser||Land Cruiser||Land Cruiser||Land Cruiser|
|Pickup||Toyota Pickup||Toyota Pickup||Toyota Pickup||Tacoma||Tacoma|