Toyota T engine
The Toyota T series is a family of inline-4 automobile engines manufactured by Toyota beginning in 1970 and ending in 1985. It started as a Pushrod Overhead Valve (OHV) design and later, performance oriented Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) variants were added to the lineup. Toyota had built its solid reputation on the reliability of these engines.
The 4T-GTE variant of this engine allowed Toyota to compete in the World Rally Championship in the early 1980s, making it the first Japanese manufacturer to do so.
The bottom end of the 503 Race engine is patterned after the 3T engine. Race engines based on the 2T-G include the 100E, 151E.
- All T engines utilize a timing chain and have a cast iron block with an alloy cylinder head with hardened valve seats and a hemispherical combustion chamber design (HEMI)..
- All T engines are carburated except those with electronic fuel injection, "E" designation.
- All T engines use a 2 valve OHV design except those with a DOHC performance head, "G" designation.
- The 12T/13T has a sub-cylinder directly behind the spark plug that leads into a smaller chamber for emission purposes.
The Toyota T engine series was later replaced by the Toyota A engine series.
The first T engine displaced 1407 cc and was produced from 1970 through 1979. Cylinder bore is 80 mm (3.15 in) and stroke is 70 mm (2.76 in).
Output is 86 hp (64 kW) at 6000 RPM and 85 ft·lbf (115 N·m) at 3800 RPM. The more-powerful twin-carburetor T-B was produced for the first six years.
- Toyota Corolla E20 series
The larger 1588 cc 2T was produced from 1970 through 1984. Cylinder bore is 85 mm (3.35 in) and stroke is 70 mm (2.76 in).
The 2T engines are usually coupled with either a T40 4 speed/T50 5 speed manual transmission, or an A40 3 speed automatic transmission.
Output for the early 2T-C bigport design is 102hp which is also due to different SAE testing methods, while the later version is 75 hp (56 kW) at 5200 RPM and 87 ft.lbf (117 Nm) at 3600 RPM. The twin-carb 2T-B produces 90-105 hp (67-78 kW) and 85-102 ft·lbf (115-138 N·m). Applications:
- Toyota Corolla E20 through E30 series
- Toyota Carina A10 through A60 series
- Toyota Celica A20 through A60 series
- Toyota Corona T70 series
- Daihatsu Charmant
This engine was also commonly used in Australian Formula Two race cars during the 1970s and 1980s, where they typically made between 180 and 200hp. The 1979 championship was won by a Toyota 2T powered Cheetah mk6. In 1984 Peter Glover borrowed a Cheetah mk7 powered by Toyota 2T for one round. The car won the round and helped secure the championship.
The 1588 cc 12T-U was produced from 1970 through 1983. It produces 88 hp (66 kW) at 5600 RPM and 96 ft·lbf (130 N·m) at 3400 RPM.
- Toyota Corolla E30 series
The 2T-G, produced from 1970 through 1983, is a DOHC version. Output is 110-125 hp (82-93 kW) and 105-109 ft·lbf (142-147 N·m). Variants include the air-injected 2T-GR, Japan-spec 2T-GU, and fuel injected 2T-GEU. Twin sidedraft carburators were used in non-EFI versions.
The 2T-G was replaced by the 4A-GE in most applications.
- Toyota Corolla Levin E20 through E70 series
- Toyota Celica A20 through A60 series
- Toyota Carina A40 and A60 series
Like the 18RG (2.0L) the 2TG was considered the flagship engine of Toyota's 1600 class until it was superseded by the 4AGE in the 1980s. The 2TG is still a popular engine for conversions in to 'classic' Celicas and Corollas and are often suitable for classic and formula racing series.
All 2TG cylinder heads were cast by Yamaha, however, some are not marked as such.
When bored out to a maximum of 89mm and in combination with a 3T crankshaft, the 2T and 2TG will have a displacement of almost 2.0L. The 2T and 3T series use the same conrod dimensions, with the different pin heights on the pistons. Aftermarket pistons are available from very low (<7:1) through to very high (>13:1) compression ratios.
The 3T displaces 1770 cc and was produced from 1977 through 1985. Cylinder bore is 85 mm (3.35 in) and stroke is 78 mm (3.07 in).
The 3T OHV engines are mated to either of a T40 4 speed, T50 5 speed manual transmission, or an A40 3 speed, or A40D 4 speed automatic transmission.
Output ranges from 70-105 hp (52-78 kW) and 93-120 ft·lbf (126-162 N·m) between the California 3T-C and Japan-spec fuel injected 3T-EU.
The 1770 cc 13T-U was produced from 1977 through 1982. It produces 95 hp (71 kW) at 5400 RPM and 109 ft·lbf (147 N·m) at 3400 RPM.
- Toyota Corolla T-18
The 3TGTE is the most performance orientated version of the 3T engine. It features a twin-spark (two spark plugs per cylinder) design, is mated to a W55 5speed transmission, and is turbocharged with a Toyota CT-20 Turbo to generate 160 hp (119 kW) at 6000 RPM and 152 ft·lbf (206 N·m) at 4800 RPM.
4T-GTE (1.8L, 2.1L)
This is the race or road going version (1.8L) of the T family which powered Toyota's Group B and World Rally Championship cars. In its race trim it is a 2090cc high-performance DOHC engine with a KKK turbocharger, electronic fuel injection, and a twin-spark ignition system, which produces 370 to 600 hp depending on race trim. The road going homologation version produces 180HP.
- Toyota Celica Twincam Turbo TA64
- Toyota Celica "IMSA GTO"
- Toyota 83C
- Toyota 84C
- Toyota 85C
- Toyota 86C
- Eagle Mk I