Toyota L engine
The L family first appeared in October 1977, it is a series of 4 cylinder diesel engines. It is the first diesel engine from Toyota to use a rubber timing belt in conjunction with a SOHC head. Engines like 2L-II and 2L-T are still in production to the present day.
The 1L is the first L engine produced (Toyota just call it L engine, not 1L). 2.2L (2188cc), 4 cylinder diesel engine. Output is 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 rpm and 93 ft·lbf (126 N·m).
The 2L is a 2.4 L (2446 cc) 4 cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 92 mm and stroke is 92 mm, with a compression ratio of 22.3:1. Output is 72 hp (53.6 kW) at 4000 RPM with 115 ft·lb (155.9 N·m) of torque at 2200 RPM.
The latest version of 2L, it is the upgrade version of 2L. Bore and stroke remains the same. The most significant change is camshaft lift valve directly via tappet not rocker arm as in 2L. The valve clearance is adjusted using shim. Later L engine 3L and 5L also use this valve operation system. Maximum output is 83 hp (61.9 kW) at 4000 rpm and maximum torque is 17.0 kg.m at 2400 rpm.
The 2L-T is a 2.4 L (2446 cc) turbo version of the 2L still being produced since 1985. The bore and stroke are the same but the 2L-T has a compression ratio of 20:1. Output is 86 hp (64.1 kW) at 4000 RPM with 139 ft·lb (188.4 N·m) of torque at 2200 RPM.
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Developed as a new version of 2L-T, the 2L-TE features a new development used in Diesel engines at that time, the EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) system. Although Toyota used this fuel injection system in gasoline engines years before, this is among the first Diesel engines to adopt such a system. Although the basic construction is similar to a modern gasoline injector, the EFI system in 2L-TE utilize considerably higher injection pressures. The EFI system meter fuel with great precision and succeeded in increasing the engine's efficiency. Like the 2L-T , it is 2.4L (2446cc) and it is a SOHC (Single Overhead Cam) engine, having 8 valves. It also comes with a Turbo charger. The bore is 92 mm and stroke is also 92 mm. Due to the EFI system, the 2L-TE is stronger than 2L-T, having maximum output of 97HP (72.3kW) at 3800 RPM and maximum torque is 24.54 kg.m (240.3 N･m) at 2400 RPM. Redline of this engine is at 4800 RPM. Compression ratio is 21.0 : 1, slightly higher than 2L-T. 2L-TE was replaced by the KZ engine in the year 1993.
High Pressure Charged version of 2L-TE, the fuel is injected with a high pressure system, High Pressure Charging. Bore and stroke remains the same, 92 mm on both. Maximum output was 94 hp (69 kW) at 4000 rpm and maximum torque was 20.5 kg.m (201.0 N･m). Compression ratio remains the same, 21.0 : 1. Comes with a Turbo charger and used the EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) system as well.
The 3L is a 2.8 L (2779 cc) 4 cylinder diesel engine. Bore is 96 mm and stroke is 96 mm, with a compression ratio of 22.2:1. Output is 89.8 hp (67 kW) at 4000 RPM with 134.9 ft·lb (183 N·m) of torque at 2400 RPM.
The 5L-E is a 3.0 L (2986 cc) EFI version of the 5L engine. It is the latest member of the L family. It has a bore of 99.5 mm and stroke of 96 mm, with a compression ratio of 22.2:1. Output is 96.5 hp (72 kW) at 4000 RPM with 141.6 ft·lb (192 N·m) of torque at 2400 RPM.
- Toyota L Engine (diesel) Repair Manual. Toyota Motor Sales Co.. 1982.