Toyota AA

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The A1 was the first prototype passenger car built by the company that became Toyota. It was redesigned and put into production as Toyota's first production cars, the AA Sedan (car) and the AB Cabriolet (automobile). These were succeeded by the similar AE, AC and BA sedans.

The series as a whole was replaced by the quite different and much more advanced SA.

Contents

A1

A1
Automotive industryToyota
Production1935 (3 prototypes)
AssemblyKoromo, Japan
SuccessorAA
Car classificationmedium size family car
Car body stylesedan
Automobile layoutfront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Automobile platformladder chassis
Internal combustion engineType A
RelatedG1 truck

3 A1 prototypes were completed in May 1935. None of the them survive. They were blessed in a Buddhist ceremony and Kiichiro Toyoda then drove one of them to his father's grave (his father having given him the seed money to start a car factory).

After completion of the prototypes, Toyota then switched its attention to the G1 truck because it was more likely to be profitable in the short term. After the G1 was in production the company was able to spend resources on developing the AA and AB passenger cars.

Dates


The A1 prototypes were completed in May 1935.

Mechanicals


The A1 used the 3389 cc Type A 6 cylinder engine with a 3 speed column shift manual gearbox.

The chassis and electrics were copied from Ford.

Solid axles were used at both ends. Pressed metal discs were used for all 4 wheel rims (very modern for the time). Braking was by drums.

The mechanicals were the same as used in the production AA, AB and G1 vehicles.

Body


The A1 was a fully enclosed, 4 door sedan, with normal front doors and forward opening, Suicide doors rear doors. It was heavily based on the Chrysler Airflow, Toyoda having bought an Airflow and disassembled it the year before. The front window was a single piece of flat glass with a top mounted wiper on the driver's side. There was 3 windows per side, one for the front door (without a Quarterlight window), one for the rear door and one behind the rear door. A spare tyre was mounted on the near vertical Car boot lid.

The A1 was only made in right hand drive.

AA, AB

AA, AB
Toyota AA(replica)
Automotive industryToyota
Production1936 to 1943
AssemblyKoromo, Japan
PredecessorA1
SuccessorAC
Car classificationmedium size family car
Car body stylesedan (AA), cabriolet (AB)
Automobile layoutfront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Automobile platformladder chassis
Internal combustion engineType A
Transmission (mechanics)3 speed floor shift manual
Wheelbase2851 mm (112.2 in)[1]
Length4737 mm (186.5 in)
Width1734 mm (68.3 in)
Height1737 mm (68.4 in)
Curb weight1500 kg (3306.9 lb)

The AA was similar to the A1 prototypes with only minor changes.

Dates and Production Figures

A total of 1,404 AA sedans was produced from 1936 until 1943, when the model was replaced by the more austere AC.

A total of 353 AB phaetons, including the military ABR version, was produced until 1942. There was no direct replacement.

Body types

The AA was a fully enclosed 4 door sedan that largely copied the Chrysler Airflow Sedan (car). It had a metal body (a modern method for its time) on a metal Body-on-frame. The rear doors opened backwards (now known as suicide doors). The front glass spanned the entire width of the body in a single pane.

The AB was identical to the AA except that it was a Cabriolet (automobile) with a folding cloth roof, the rear doors opened in the normal manner and the front glass could fold down onto the engine compartment.

Mechanicals

The mechanicals were the same as used in the A1 prototype.

50th year replica

Toyota wanted to use an AA for its 50th birthday in 1987 but couldn't find any surviving examples.[2] Toyota decided to build a replica but even for that there were no complete and consistent plans. Plans that could be found were from various points during the car's development process and in any case were often incomplete and lacking by today's standards. However, a single replica was built that is believed to be representative of the AA. This replica is now in the Toyota Motor Museum.

AC

AC
Automotive industryToyota
Production1943 to 1948
PredecessorAA, AB
SuccessorSA
Car classificationmedium size family car
Car body stylesedan
Automobile layoutfront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Automobile platformladder chassis
Internal combustion engineType B
Transmission (mechanics)3 speed floor shift manual
Wheelbase2850 mm (112.2 in)[1]
Length4884 mm (192.3 in)
Width1734 mm (68.3 in)
Height1746 mm (68.7 in)
Curb weight1550 kg (3417.2 lb)

The AC was similar to the AA, with only minor alternations to the body. The front glass was now a split into left and right halves with thick metal body work between them.

Dates and Production Figures

Design work began in 1938. A total of 115 AC sedans was produced from 1943 until the model was replaced by the SA during 1947-1948. Forty-three were produced in 1943, 19 in 1944 (until February), and 50 units were made from spares in 1947 for a military order, with a final three being built in 1948. No Toyota passenger car production occurred in the years 1945 and 1946, although what would become the first post-war car, the SA, was in development during these years.

Mechanicals

The mechanicals were similar to the AA and AB.

EA

EA
Automotive industryToyota
Production1938 (prototypes)
AssemblyKoromo, Japan
Car classificationsmall family car
Car body stylesedan
Automobile layoutfront-engine, front-wheel drive
Internal combustion engineType E
Wheelbase2610 mm[1]
Length3220 mm
Width1300 mm
Height1250 mm
Curb weight650 kg
RelatedDKW F-7

Kiichiro Toyoda designed the EA as a copy of the DKW F-7 sedan in 1938 but production was prevented by war time restrictions.[1]

Dates and Production Figures

The EA was designed in 1938 but did not go into production.

Mechanicals

A small front mounted, 2 cylinder, 2 stroke Type E engine connected as Front wheel drive.

EB

The EB was a Rear wheel drive Minicar but production was prevented by war time restrictions.[3]


Dates and Production Figures

The EB was designed in 1938 but did not go into production.

Mechanicals

A small front mounted, 2 cylinder, 2 stroke Type E engine connected as Rear wheel drive.

AE

AE
Automotive industryToyota
Production1941 to 1943
PredecessorAA, AB
SuccessorAC
Car classificationmedium size family car
Car body stylesedan
Automobile layoutfront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Automobile platformladder chassis
Internal combustion engineType C
Transmission (mechanics)3 speed floor shift manual
Wheelbase2500 mm (98.4 in)[1]
Length4500 mm (177.2 in)
Width1730 mm (68.1 in)
Height1635 mm (64.4 in)
Curb weight1220 kg (2689.6 lb)

The AE sedan was a smaller car than its predecessors.

Dates and Production Figures

The AE was developed during 1939, and a prototype was completed in September of that year. The model was introduced at the beginning of 1940. However, production occurred from 1941 to 1943. Only 76 of this model were built [4] [5].

Mechanicals

The mechanicals were similar to the AA except that it had the Type C engine, which was a Type A with 2 cylinders removed.

BA

The BA was an austerity sedan, and used wood in its framing to conserve metal. This model is said to have been based on the Volvo PV60 [4] [6], but this is open to question, since the PV60 was not introduced until 1944, and did not enter production until 1946. Most of the prototypes of this Volvo were built in the 1942-1944 period. There is anecdotal information regarding a 1939 PV60 prototype, but the data is sketchy and no photos exist [7] .

Dates and Production Figures

The BA was introduced and first produced in 1940. No more than 17 were built [5]. Some sources, however, claim the model did not enter production, such as it was, until 1943, with one giving the date of June 1943 [4] [6]. But judging from 1943's production figures, the majority of which would have to represent the AC, it would not seem to be the case that all 17 BA production cars were built that year. The production of the 17 cars may have occurred in 1940 and 1943, or perhaps it was stretched over the 1940-1943 period, with the last few being completed in 1943, when the model was said to have started "official" production. Support for the notion that at least a few of these cars were produced in 1943 would come from a photograph (obtained from Toyota Motor Co. Ltd.) of a BA captioned as "1943 Totoya Model BA 4-cylinder saloon" in at least one source [8].

Other prototypes never built in series

One example of the Model BB phaeton was built, in 1941 [5]. It resembled a contemporary Chevrolet.

Two [5] or three [9] examples of a luxury sedan, known as the Model B (or Model BC, according to one source [10]), were built. Although one source associates this model with the year 1942 [9], most claim the prototypes were built in 1944 [4] [6] [10]. This was the last passenger car development until after the war ended.

Toyota Passenger Car Production from 1935 to 1949

The following table is a portion of that put out by Toyota, and represents passenger car production only, apparently not including prototypes:

1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
0
100
577
539
107
268
208
41
53
19
0
0
54
21
235

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "The Japanese Automobile Industry: Technology and Management at Nissan & Toyota", Michael Cusumano, Cambridge (Mass.) & London: The Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN 067447256X
  2. "The Toyota AA Passenger Car", in "the wheel extended", vol 17, no.3, 1987, Toyota Motor Corporation, ISSN 0049-755X
  3. "Toyota: A history of the First 50 Years", Toyota Motor Corporation, 1988, ISBN 0-517-61777-3, p133/135/137
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "One Hundred Years of the Automobile, 1886-1986", Marco Ruiz (editor), New York: Gallery Books, 1985, ISBN 0-8317-6550-X
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Japan's Toyota with Stovebolts", Bob Hall, in "Special-Interest Autos", Mar-Apr 1977
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "The Complete History of the Japanese Car", Marco Ruiz, New York: Portland House, 1986, ISBN 0-517-61777-3
  7. "Volvo: The Cars -- From the 20s to the 80's", Björn-Eric Lindh, Malmö: Förlagshuset Norden AB, 1986, ISBN 91-86442-14-7
  8. "The Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars: 1885 to the Present", G. N. Georgano, New York: E. P. Dutton, 2nd edition, 1973, ISBN 0-525-08351-0
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Toyota seit 1936", Joachim Kuch, Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag, Artikelnummer 17060
  10. 10.0 10.1 "The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile", Nick Georgano, Norwich: The Stationery Office Limited, 2000, ISBN 1-57958-293-1
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